Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The Company follows accounting standards established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) to ensure consistent reporting of financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. References to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) in these notes are to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification™ (“ASC”) and related updates (“ASU”).
Principles of Consolidation—The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Envestnet and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Foreign Currency—Accounts for the Envestnet Wealth Solutions segment that are denominated in a non-U.S. currency have been remeasured using the U.S. dollar as the functional currency. Certain accounts within the Envestnet Data & Analytics segment are recorded and measured in foreign currencies. The assets and liabilities for those subsidiaries with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar are translated at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and revenues and expenses are translated at average exchange rates. Differences arising from these foreign currency translations are recorded in the consolidated balance sheets as accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) within stockholders' equity. The Company is also subject to gains and losses from foreign currency denominated transactions and the remeasurement of foreign currency denominated balance sheet accounts, both of which are included in other income (expense), net in the consolidated statements of operations.
Management Estimates—Management has made certain estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities to prepare these consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP. Areas requiring the use of management estimates relate to estimating uncollectible receivables, revenue recognition, valuations and assumptions used for impairment testing of goodwill, intangible and other long-lived assets, right-of-use assets, performance shares issued, contingent consideration, realization of deferred tax assets, uncertain tax positions, sales tax liabilities, operating lease liabilities, fair value of the liability portion of the convertible debt, commitments and contingencies and assumptions used to allocate purchase prices in business combinations. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
The Company accounts for its revenue arrangements in accordance with FASB Topic 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"). The Company derives revenues from asset-based and subscription-based services and professional services and other sources. Revenues are recognized when control of these services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those services. All revenue recognized in the consolidated statements of operations is considered to be revenue from contracts with customers. Sales and usage-based taxes are excluded from revenues. The majority of the Company's revenues are recognized when services are provided.
Asset-Based Recurring Revenues—Asset-based recurring revenues primarily consist of fees for providing customers continuous access to platform services through the Company’s uniquely customized platforms. These platform services include investment manager research, portfolio diagnostics, proposal generation, investment model management, rebalancing and trading, portfolio performance reporting and monitoring solutions, billing and back office and middle-office operations and administration and are made available to customers throughout the contractual term from the date the customized platform is launched.
The asset-based fees the Company earns are generally based upon variable percentages of assets managed or administered on our platforms. The fee percentage varies based on the level and type of services the Company provides to its customers, as well as the values of existing customer accounts. The values of the customer accounts are affected by inflows or outflows of customer funds and market fluctuations.
The platform services are substantially the same over each quarter and performed in a similar manner over the contract period, and are considered stand-ready promises. The platform services that are delivered to the customer over the quarter are considered distinct, as the customer benefits distinctly from each increment of our services and each quarter is separately identified in the contract, and are considered to be a single performance obligation.
The pricing generally resets each quarter and the pricing structure is consistent throughout the term of the contract. The variable fees are generally calculated and billed quarterly in advance based on preceding quarter-end values and the variable amounts earned from the platform services relate specifically to the benefits transferred to the customer during that month or quarter. Accordingly, revenue is allocated to the specific quarter in which services are performed.
The asset-based contracts generally contain one performance obligation and revenue is recognized on a ratable basis over the quarter beginning on the date that the platform services are made available to the customer as the customer simultaneously consumes and receives the benefits of the services. All asset-based fees are recognized in the Envestnet Wealth Solutions segment.
For certain services provided by third parties, the Company evaluates whether it is the principal (revenues reported on a gross basis) or agent (revenues reported on a net basis). Generally, the Company reports customer fees including charges for third party service providers where the Company has a direct contract with such third party service providers on a gross basis, whereas the amounts billed to its customers are recorded as revenues, and amounts paid to third party service providers are recorded as cost of revenues. The Company is the principal in the transaction because it controls the services before they are transferred to its customers. Control is evidenced by the Company being primarily responsible to its customers and having discretion in establishing pricing.
Subscription-Based Recurring Revenues—Subscription-based recurring revenues primarily consist of fees for providing customers continuous access to the Company’s platform for wealth management and financial wellness. The subscription-based fees generally include fixed fees and or usage-based fees.
Generally, the subscription services are substantially the same over each quarter and performed in a similar manner over the contract period, and are considered stand-ready promises. Quarterly subscription services are considered distinct as the customer can benefit from each increment of services on its own and each quarter is separately identified in the contract, and services are considered to be a single performance obligation.
Certain subscription-based contracts include fixed and variable consideration. The amount of variable consideration that is included in the transaction price may be subject to constraint and included in the subscription-based recurring revenues only to the extent that is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. The Company utilizes the expected value method to estimate variable consideration based on available historical, current, and forecasted information.
The usage-based pricing generally resets each quarter and the pricing structure is generally consistent throughout the term of the contract. The fixed fees are generally calculated and billed quarterly in advance. The usage-based fees are generally calculated and are billed either monthly or quarterly based on the actual usage and relate specifically to the benefits transferred to the customer during that quarter. Accordingly, revenue is allocated to the specific quarter in which services are performed.
Fixed fees are generally recognized on a ratable basis over the quarter beginning when the subscription services are made available to the customer, as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of the subscription services. Usage-based revenue is recognized on a monthly basis as the customer receives and consumes the benefit as the Company provides the services. Subscription-based fees are recognized in both the Envestnet Wealth Solutions and Envestnet Data & Analytics segments.
Professional Services and Other Revenues—The Company earns professional services fees by providing contractual customized services and platform software development as well as initial implementation fees. Professional services contracts generally have fixed prices, and generally specify the deliverables in the contract. Certain professional services contracts are billed on a time and materials basis and revenue is recognized over time as the services are performed. For contracts billed on a fixed price basis, revenue is recognized over time based on the proportion of services performed. Initial implementation fees are fixed and are generally recognized ratably over the contract term.
Other revenues primarily include revenue related to the Advisor Summit. Other revenues are recognized when the events are held. Other revenues are not significant.
The majority of the Company's professional services and other contracts contain one performance obligation. Professional services and other revenues are recognized in both the Envestnet Wealth Solutions and Envestnet Data & Analytics segments.
Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations—Certain of the Company’s contracts with customers contain
multiple performance obligations, such as platform services performance obligation and professional services performance obligation. For such arrangements, the Company allocates revenue to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. Standalone selling prices of services are estimated based on observable transactions when these services are sold on a standalone basis or based on expected cost plus margin.
Remaining Performance Obligations—Remaining performance obligations represent the transaction price allocated to unsatisfied or partially satisfied performance obligations. The disclosure includes estimates of variable consideration. The Company applies the practical expedients and exemption not to disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less; (ii) contracts for which the Company recognizes revenue at the amount to which it has the right to invoice for services performed; and (iii) contracts for which the variable consideration is allocated entirely to a wholly unsatisfied performance obligation or to a wholly unsatisfied promise to transfer a distinct service that forms part of a single performance obligation.
Contract Balances—The Company records contract liabilities (deferred revenue) when cash payments are received in advance of its performance. The term between invoicing date and when payment is due is generally not significant. For the majority of its arrangements, the Company requires advance quarterly payments before the services are delivered to the customer.
Deferred Revenue—Deferred revenue primarily consists of implementation fees, professional services and subscription fee payments received in advance from customers.
Deferred Sales Incentive Compensation—Sales incentive compensation earned by the Company’s sales force is considered an incremental and recoverable cost to acquire a contract with a customer. Sales incentive compensation for initial contracts is deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of benefit. The Company determined the period of benefit by taking into consideration its customer contracts, life of the technology and other factors. Sales incentive compensation for renewal contracts are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over the related contractual renewal period. Deferred sales incentive compensation is included in other non-current assets in the consolidated balance sheets and amortization expense is included in compensation and benefits expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company has applied the practical expedient to recognize the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred if the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs are included in compensation and benefits expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
Cost of Revenues—Cost of revenues primarily includes expenses related to third party investment management and clearing, custody and brokerage services. Generally, these expenses are calculated based upon a contractual percentage of the market value of assets held in customer accounts measured as of the end of each quarter and are recognized ratably throughout the quarter based on the number of days in the quarter.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts—The Company evaluates the need for an allowance for doubtful accounts for potentially uncollectible fees receivable. In establishing the amount of the allowance, if any, customer-specific information is considered related to delinquent accounts, including historical loss experience and current economic conditions. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts was $2.6 million and $3.9 million, respectively.
Cash and Cash Equivalents—The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are recorded at cost, which approximates fair value. The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents.
Restricted Cash—The following table reconciles cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash from the consolidated balance sheets to amounts reported in the consolidated statements of cash flows:
Investments—The Company has investments in private companies for which it has significant influence that are recorded using the equity method of accounting. The Company uses the equity method of accounting because of its less than 50% ownership and lack of control in these companies. These investments are included in other non-current assets on the consolidated balance sheets. The Company records the portion of its earnings or losses in these privately held companies’ net income or loss on a one quarter lag from the actual results of operations as a component of other income (expense), net on the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company reviews all investments on a regular basis to evaluate the carrying amount and economic viability. This evaluation process is based on information that the Company requests directly from these investees and includes, but is not limited to, the review of the investee’s cash position, financing needs, earnings/revenue outlook, operational performance, management/ownership changes and competition. As this information is not subject to the same disclosure regulations as U.S. publicly traded companies, the basis for these evaluations is subject to the timing and accuracy of the data received from these investees.
When a review of an investee’s operations indicates that there is a decline in its value and it has been determined that this decline is other than temporary, the Company assesses the investment for impairment. Impaired investments are written down to estimated fair value. Fair value is estimated using a variety of valuation methodologies, including comparing the investee with publicly traded companies in similar lines of business, applying valuation multiples to estimated future operating results and analyzing estimated discounted future cash flows. There were no impairments of investments for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
For investments where the Company owns equity interests in privately held companies though does not have significant influence and there is no readily determinable fair value, it accounts for the investment under the measurement alternative at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus fair value changes when there are observable price changes.
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of furniture and equipment is computed using the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives of the depreciable assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated economic useful lives or the remaining lease term, whichever is shorter. Improvements are capitalized, while repairs and maintenance costs are charged to operations as incurred. Assets are reviewed for recoverability whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. There were $5.1 million of impairments of property and equipment for the year ended December 31, 2022. There were immaterial impairments of property and equipment for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Internally Developed Software for Internal Use—Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct and incremental, are capitalized until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. The Company also capitalizes costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred. Internally developed software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. Management evaluates the useful lives of these assets on an annual basis and tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets. There were immaterial impairments of internally developed software for internal use for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets—Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets of businesses acquired. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment each year using a qualitative or quantitative process that is performed at least annually or whenever events or circumstances indicate a likely reduction in the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The Company has concluded that it has two reporting units.
The Company performs the annual impairment analysis on October 31 in order to provide management time to complete the analysis prior to year-end. Prior to performing the quantitative evaluation, an assessment of qualitative factors may be performed to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying value. If it is determined that it is unlikely that the carrying value exceeds the fair value, the Company is not required to complete the quantitative goodwill impairment evaluation. If it is determined that the carrying value may exceed fair value when considering qualitative factors, a quantitative goodwill impairment evaluation is performed. When performing the quantitative evaluation, if the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss equal to the difference will be recorded. No goodwill impairment charges have been recorded for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances may affect the recoverability of the net assets. Such reviews include an analysis of current results and take into consideration the undiscounted value of projected operating cash flows. No intangible asset impairment charges have been recorded for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Leases—The Company accounts for its leases in accordance with FASB Topic 842 - Leases (“ASC 842”) and has elected the available package of practical expedients as well as elected to apply the short-term lease exemption to all of its classes of underlying assets.
At inception, the Company determines if an arrangement is a lease. Operating leases are included in operating right-of-use ("ROU") assets, current operating lease liabilities and non-current operating lease liabilities in the Company's consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment, net in the Company's consolidated balance sheets.
ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company's obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the remaining lease term. The operating lease ROU asset also includes prepaid payments and excludes lease incentives. As none of the Company's leases provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The Company's lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components. The Company has elected the practical expedient to account for non-lease components as part of the lease component for all asset classes. The majority of the Company's lease agreements are real estate leases.
Fair Value Measurements—The Company accounts for its fair value measurements in accordance with FASB Topic 825 - Financial Instruments (“ASC 825”), which provides companies the option to report selected financial assets and liabilities at fair value and also requires entities to display the fair value of the selected assets and liabilities on the face of the balance sheets. The Company has not elected the ASC 825-10 option to report selected financial assets and liabilities at fair value.
ASC 825-10 also establishes presentation and disclosure requirements designed to facilitate comparisons between companies that choose different measurement attributes for similar types of assets and liabilities and to more easily understand the effect of the Company’s choice to use fair value on its earnings.
Financial assets and liabilities recorded at fair value in the consolidated balance sheets are categorized based upon a fair value hierarchy established by GAAP, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into the following levels:
Income Taxes—The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and net operating loss carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company follows authoritative guidance related to how uncertain tax positions should be recognized, measured, disclosed and presented in the consolidated financial statements. This requires the evaluation of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing the Company’s tax returns to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained “when challenged” or “when examined” by the applicable tax authority. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from tax positions are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
Business Combinations—The Company accounts for business combinations under the acquisition method. The cost of an acquired company is assigned to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and the liabilities assumed on the basis of their fair values at the date of acquisition. The determination of fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management to make estimates and use valuation techniques when market values are not readily available. Any excess of purchase price over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired is allocated to goodwill. Transaction costs associated with business combinations are expensed as incurred. The Company determines the fair value of contingent consideration payable on the acquisition date using a discounted cash flow approach utilizing an appropriate discount rate. Each reporting period thereafter, the Company revalues these obligations and records increases or decreases in their fair value as adjustments to fair market value adjustment to contingent consideration in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration payable can result from adjustments to the estimated revenue forecasts included in the contingent consideration calculations.
Stock-Based Compensation—Compensation cost relating to stock-based awards made to employees and directors is recognized in the consolidated financial statements using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model in the case of non-qualified stock option awards, and intrinsic value in the case of restricted stock awards. The Company measures the cost of such awards based on the estimated fair value of the award measured at the grant date and recognizes the expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period.
Determining the fair value of stock options requires the Company to make several estimates, including the volatility of its stock price, the expected life of the option, forfeiture rate, dividend yield and interest rates. The Company estimates the expected life of its options using historical internal forfeiture data. The Company estimates stock-price volatility using historical third-party quotes of Envestnet’s common stock. The Company utilizes a risk-free interest rate, which is based on the yield of U.S. zero coupon securities with a maturity equal to the expected life of the options. The Company has not and does not expect to pay dividends on its common shares.
The Company is required to estimate expected forfeitures of stock-based awards at the grant date and recognize compensation cost only for those awards expected to vest. The forfeiture assumption is ultimately adjusted to the actual forfeiture rate. Therefore, changes in the forfeiture assumptions may impact the total amount of expense ultimately recognized over the vesting period. Estimated forfeitures will be reassessed in subsequent periods and may change based on new facts and circumstances.
Convertible Notes—In May 2018, the Company issued $345.0 million of 1.75% Convertible Notes due June 2023. In August 2020, the Company issued $517.5 million of 0.75% Convertible Notes due August 2025. In November 2022, the Company issued $575.0 million of 2.625% Convertible Notes due November 2027. The Company used a portion of the proceeds from the Convertible Notes due 2027 and available cash to repurchase $300.0 million aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Convertible Notes due 2023 and $200.0 million aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Convertible Notes due 2025 in November 2022. Collectively the “Convertible Notes” are accounted for in accordance with FASB Topic 470 - Debt ("ASC 470"). The Company has determined that the embedded conversion options in the Convertible Notes are not required to be separately accounted for as a derivative under GAAP. Upon adoption of ASU 2020-06, the Company accounts for the Convertible Notes as a single liability measured at amortized cost.
Capped Call Transactions—In November 2022, the Company entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions (the “Capped Call Transactions”) with certain financial institutions (the “Capped Call Counterparties”). The Capped Call Transactions initially cover the number of shares of Envestnet’s common stock underlying the Convertible Notes due 2027, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments. The Capped Call Transactions are net purchased call options on Envestnet’s common stock.
The Capped Call Transactions are separate transactions entered into by the Company with each of the Capped Call Counterparties, are not part of the terms of the Convertible Notes due 2027, and do not affect any holder’s rights under the Convertible Notes due 2027. Holders of the Convertible Notes due 2027 do not have any rights with respect to the Capped Call Transactions.
As the Capped Call Transactions are legally detachable and separately exercisable from the Convertible Notes due 2027, they were evaluated as freestanding instruments under FASB Topic 480 - Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity. The Company concluded that the Capped Call Transactions meet the scope exceptions for derivative instruments under FASB Topic 815 - Derivatives and Hedging. As such, the Capped Call Transactions meet the criteria for classification in equity and are included as a reduction to additional paid-in capital.
Non-controlling Interest—In March 2018, the Company initially acquired a 43% fully diluted interest in a private company for cash consideration of $1.3 million. In connection with the acquisition, the Company was granted the ability to appoint two members to the private company's board of directors. The appointment of two board members gives the Company the majority of the board's voting rights. As a result, the Company uses the consolidation method of accounting for this investment. The private company was formed to enable financial advisors to provide insurance and income protection products to their clients.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements—In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity.” This update simplifies the accounting for certain convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models available for convertible debt instruments and revises Topic 815-40, which provides guidance on how an entity must determine whether a contract qualifies for a scope exception from derivative accounting. Under the new guidance, the embedded conversion features are no longer separated from the host contract for convertible instruments with conversion features that are not required to be accounted for as derivatives under Topic 815, or that do not result in substantial premiums accounted for as paid-in capital. The convertible debt instruments will be accounted for as a single liability measured at amortized cost. In addition, the new guidance requires the if-converted method to be applied for all convertible instruments. This standard is effective for financial statements issued by public companies for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption of the standard is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Adoption of the standard requires using either a modified retrospective or a full retrospective approach.
The Company adopted this standard as of January 1, 2021 using the modified retrospective approach. Adoption of this standard resulted in a decrease to accumulated deficit of $28.6 million (net of $0.9 million in taxes), a decrease to paid-in capital of $108.5 million (net of $6.7 million in taxes) and an increase to Convertible Notes of $87.5 million. Interest expense recognized in future periods is expected to be reduced as a result of accounting for the convertible debt instrument as a single liability measured at its amortized cost, with an expected decrease of approximately $22.1 million in 2021 as a result of the adoption.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, “Business Combinations ("ASC 805").” This update amends ASC 805 to add contract assets and contract liabilities to the list of exceptions to the recognition and measurement principles that apply to business combinations and to require that an entity (acquirer) recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities in accordance with ASC 606. This standard is effective for financial statements issued by public companies for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption of the standard is permitted. The amendment is to be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendment. The Company has early adopted this standard as of January 1, 2022. Adoption of ASU 2021-08 did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.