Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The Company follows accounting standards established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) to ensure consistent reporting of financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. References to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) in these footnotes are to the FASB Accounting Standards CodificationTM, sometimes referred to as the codification or ASC.
Principles of Consolidation—The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Envestnet and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Accounts denominated in a non-U.S. currency have been re-measured using the U.S. dollar as the functional currency.
Management Estimates—Management of the Company has made certain estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities to prepare these consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP. Areas requiring the use of management estimates relate to estimating uncollectible receivables, revenue recognition, valuations and assumptions used for impairment testing of goodwill, intangible and other long-lived assets, fair value of restricted stock and stock options issued, fair value of contingent consideration, realization of deferred tax assets, uncertain tax positions fair value of the liability portion of the convertible debt and assumptions used to allocate purchase prices in business combinations. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Revenue Recognition—The Company recognizes revenue from services related to asset management and administration, licensing and professional services fees. The Company recognizes revenue when all of the following conditions are satisfied: (i) there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, (ii) the service or product has been provided to the customer and no uncertainties exist surrounding product acceptances (iii) the amount of fees to be paid by the customer is fixed or determinable; and (iv) the collection of fees is reasonably assured.
Subscription— Subscription revenue is primarily derived from customers accessing the SaaS technology platform and includes subscription, support, and usage-based fees. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the contracted term of each respective subscription agreement, commencing on the date the service is provisioned to the customer, provided the four revenue recognition criteria have been satisfied. Usage-based revenue is recognized as earned, provided the four revenue recognition criteria have been satisfied.
Licensing— The Company derives licensing fees from recurring contractual fixed fee contracts with larger financial institutions or enterprise clients. Licensing contracts allow the customer to provide a unique configuration of platform features and investment solutions for their advisors. The licensing fees vary based on the type of services provided and our revenues received under license agreements are recognized over the contractual term. The Company’s license agreements do not generally provide its customers the ability to take possession of the software or host the software on the customers’ own systems or through a hosting arrangement with an unrelated party.
The Company derives professional services fees from providing contractual customized service platform software development as well as implementation fees, which are recognized under a proportional performance model utilizing an output-based approach or are deferred and amortized over the estimated life of the customer relationship. The Company’s contracts generally have fixed prices, and generally specify or quantify deliverables.
Cash received by the Company in advance of the performance of services is deferred and recognized as revenue when earned. Certain portions of the Company’s revenues require management’s consideration of the nature of the client relationship in determining whether to recognize as revenue the gross amount billed or net amount retained after payments are made to providers for certain services related to the product or service offering.
The Company uses the following factors to determine whether to record revenue on a gross or net basis:
When customer fees include charges for third party service providers where the Company has a direct contract with such third party service providers, gross revenue recognized by the Company equals the fee paid by the customer. The cost of revenues recognized by the Company is the amount due to the third party service provider.
In instances where the Company does not have a direct contract with the third party service provider, the Company cannot exercise discretion in establishing fees paid by the customer and fees due to the third party service provider, and the Company does not have credit risk, the Company records the revenue on a net basis.
Multiple Element Arrangements—When the Company enters into arrangements with multiple deliverables, exclusive of arrangements with software deliverables, it applies the FASB’s guidance for revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables and evaluates each deliverable to determine whether it represents a separate unit of accounting based on the following criteria: (i) whether the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis, and (ii) if the contract includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item, delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in the control of the Company. Revenue is allocated to each unit of accounting or element based on relative selling prices. The Company determines relative selling prices by using either (a) vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) if it exists; or (b) third-party evidence (“TPE”) of selling price. When neither VSOE nor TPE of selling price exists for a deliverable, the Company uses its best estimate of the selling price for that deliverable.
After determining which deliverables represent a separate unit of accounting, each unit is then accounted for under the applicable revenue recognition guidance. In cases where elements cannot be treated as separate units of accounting, the elements are combined into a single unit of accounting for revenue recognition purposes. If one of the elements that are combined into a single unit of accounting is fees from professional services, including implementation related services or customized service platform software development, the professional service fees are recognized over the course of the expected customer relationship. We have estimated the life of the customer relationship by considering both the historical retention rate of our customers while not exceeding the number of years over which we can accurately forecast future revenues. We currently estimate this term to be five years.
Deferred Revenue—Deferred revenue primarily consists of implementation and set up fees, professional services, and license fee payments received in advance from customers. For subscription agreements, the Company typically invoices its customers in monthly or annual fixed installments. Accordingly, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of these multi-year subscription agreements. Deferred revenue also includes certain deferred professional services fees, which are recognized in accordance with the Company’s revenue recognition policy.
Cost of Revenues—Cost of revenues primarily include expenses related to third party investment management and clearing, custody and brokerage services. Generally, these expenses are calculated based upon a contractual percentage of the market value of assets held in customer accounts measured as of the end of each quarter and are recognized ratably throughout the quarter based on the number of days in the quarter.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts—The Company evaluates the need for an allowance for doubtful accounts for potentially uncollectible fees receivable. In establishing the amount of the allowance, if any, customer-specific information is considered related to delinquent accounts, including historical loss experience and current economic conditions. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts was $221 and $76, respectively. The following table summarizes the changes to the allowance for doubtful accounts:
Segments—The Company’s chief operating decision maker is its chief executive officer, who reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis. Historically, the Company has determined that it has a single reporting segment and operating unit structure. As a result of the Yodlee acquisition as discussed in Note 3, the Company has re-examined its reporting and operating structure and has determined it has two segments as described below:
Envestnet – provider of unified wealth management software and services to financial advisors and institutions.
Envestnet |Yodlee – a global leader in cloud-based innovation for digital financial services.
Financial information about each business segment is contained in Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments—The carrying amounts of financial instruments, net of any allowances, including cash equivalents, fees receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other liabilities are considered to be reasonable estimates of their fair values due to their short-term nature.
Cash and Cash Equivalents—The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are recorded at cost, which approximates fair value. The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains its cash accounts at financial institutions in excess of amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). The Company monitors such credit risk and has not experienced any losses related to such risk.
Restricted Cash— As required by the lease agreement for the Company’s facilities in Redwood City, California, the Company provided a certificate of deposit as collateral for a letter of credit issued for the benefit of the landlord in lieu of a security deposit. The letter of credit expires on July 31, 2022. The restricted certificate of deposit of $148 is included in other non-current assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet. The Company has restrictions as to the withdrawal or usage of its restricted cash until the completion of the contract term.
Investments— Investments are recorded at cost and reviewed for impairment. Investments are included in “Other non-current assets” on the consolidated balance sheets and consist of non-marketable investments in privately held companies, as well as other alternative investments. The Company reviews these investments on a regular basis to evaluate the carrying amount and economic viability of these investments. This policy includes, but is not limited to, reviewing each of the investee’s cash position, financing needs, earnings/revenue outlook, operational performance, management/ownership changes and competition. The evaluation process is based on information that the Company requests from these investees. This information is not subject to the same disclosure regulations as U.S. publicly traded companies, and as such, the basis for these evaluations is subject to the timing and accuracy of the data received from these investees.
The Company’s investments are assessed for impairment when a review of the investee’s operations indicates that there is a decline in value of the investment and the decline is other than temporary. Such indicators include, but are not limited to, limited capital resources, limited prospects of receiving additional financing, and prospects for liquidity of the related securities. Impaired investments are written down to estimated fair value. The Company estimates fair value using a variety of valuation methodologies, including comparing the investee with publicly traded companies in similar lines of business, applying valuation multiples to estimated future operating results and estimated discounted future cash flows. There were impairments to investments of $0, $0 and $47 during the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of furniture and equipment is computed using the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives of the depreciable assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated economic useful lives or the remaining lease term, whichever is shorter. Improvements are capitalized, while repairs and maintenance costs are charged to operations as incurred. Assets are reviewed for recoverability whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Internally Developed Software—Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct and incremental, are capitalized until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. The Company also capitalizes costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred. Internally developed software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. Management evaluates the useful lives of these assets on an annual basis and tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets. There were no impairments of internally developed software during the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets—Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets of businesses acquired. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment each year using a two-step process that is performed at least annually or whenever events or circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. In 2015, the Company has changed the date of the annual impairment analysis from December 31 to October 31 in order to give management time to complete the analysis prior to year-end. The Company has concluded that it has a single reporting unit. Subsequent to the acquisition of Yodlee, the Company now has two reporting units. The first step is a comparison of the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill of the reporting unit is not considered impaired and the second step is unnecessary. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, a second test is performed to measure the amount of impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the goodwill to a determination of the implied fair value of the goodwill. If the carrying amount of the goodwill is greater than the implied value, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference. The implied value of the goodwill is determined as of the test date by performing a purchase price allocation, as if the reporting unit had just been acquired, using currently estimated fair values of the individual assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, together with an estimate of the fair value of the reporting unit taken as a whole. The estimate of the fair value of the reporting unit is based upon information available regarding prices of similar groups of assets, or other valuation techniques including present value techniques based upon estimates of future cash flows. No impairment charges have been recorded for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances may affect the recoverability of the net assets. Such reviews include an analysis of current results and take into consideration the undiscounted value of projected operating cash flows.
Operating and Capital Leases—In certain circumstances, the Company enters into leases with free rent periods, rent escalations or lease incentives over the term of the lease. In such cases, the Company calculates the total payments over the term of the lease and records them ratably as rent expense over that term.
The Company acquired certain software licenses and server and network equipment classified as capital leases. The Company’s server and networking equipment leases typically are accounted for as capital leases as they meet one or more of the four capital lease classification criteria. Assets acquired under capital leases are amortized over their estimated useful life of three years. The original term of the capital leases ranges from three to four years. The portion of the future payments designated as principal repayment was classified as other non-current liability on the consolidated balance sheets.
Income Taxes—The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and net operating loss carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company follows authoritative guidance related to how uncertain tax positions should be recognized, measured, disclosed and presented in the consolidated financial statements. This requires the evaluation of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing the Company’s tax returns to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained “when challenged” or “when examined” by the applicable tax authority. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from tax positions are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
Advertising Costs—The Company expenses all advertising costs as incurred and they are classified within general and administration expenses. Advertising costs totaled approximately $645, $675 and $1,028 for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Research and Development—The Company intends to continue to invest in its technology platforms and software and service offerings to provide financial advisors with access to investment solutions and services that address the widest range of financial advisors’ front-, middle-and back-office needs. In the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, our technology development expenses totaled $10,346, $8,178, and $5,998, respectively, exclusive of capitalization of internally developed software and related amortization.
Business Combinations—The Company accounts for business combinations under the acquisition method. The cost of an acquired company is assigned to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and the liabilities assumed on the basis of their fair values at the date of acquisition. The determination of fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management to make estimates and use valuation techniques when market values are not readily available. Any excess of purchase price over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired is allocated to goodwill. Transaction costs associated with business combinations are expensed as incurred. The Company determines the fair value of contingent acquisition consideration payable on the acquisition date using a discounted cash flow approach utilizing an appropriate discount rate. Each reporting period thereafter, the Company revalues these obligations and records increases or decreases in their fair value as adjustments to fair market value adjustment on contingent consideration in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Changes in the fair value of the contingent acquisition consideration payable can result from adjustments to the estimated revenue forecasts included in the contingent payment calculations.
Stock-Based Compensation—Compensation cost relating to stock-based awards made to employees and directors is recognized in the consolidated financial statements using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model in the case of non-qualified stock option awards, and intrinsic value in the case of restricted stock awards. The Company measures the cost of such awards based on the estimated fair value of the award measured at the grant date and recognizes the expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period.
Determining the fair value of stock options requires the Company to make several estimates, including the volatility of its stock price, the expected life of the option, forfeiture rate, dividend yield and interest rates. Prior to July 28, 2010, the Company was not a publicly traded company. Accordingly, the Company had limited historical information on the price of its stock as well as employees’ stock option exercise behavior. Because of this limitation, the Company cannot rely on its historical experience alone to develop assumptions for stock-price volatility and the expected life of its options. The Company estimates the expected life of its options using the “Simplified Method.” The Company estimates stock-price volatility with reference to a peer group of publicly traded companies. Determining the companies to include in this peer group involves judgment. The Company utilizes a risk-free interest rate, which is based on the yield of U.S. zero coupon securities with a maturity equal to the expected life of the options. The Company has not and does not expect to pay dividends on its common shares.
The Company is required to estimate expected forfeitures of stock-based awards at the grant date and recognize compensation cost only for those awards expected to vest. The forfeiture assumption is ultimately adjusted to the actual forfeiture rate. Therefore, changes in the forfeiture assumptions may impact the total amount of expense ultimately recognized over the vesting period. Estimated forfeitures will be reassessed in subsequent periods and may change based on new facts and circumstances.
Convertible Notes—On December 15, 2014, the Company issued $172,500 of 1.75% convertible notes due December 2019 (the “Convertible Notes”). The Convertible Notes are accounted for in accordance with ASC 470-20. The Company has determined that the embedded conversion options in the Convertible Notes are not required to be separately accounted for as a derivative under GAAP. The Company separately accounts for the liability and equity components of Convertible Notes that can be settled in cash by allocating the proceeds from issuance between the liability component and the embedded conversion option, or equity component, in accordance with accounting for convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash (including partial cash settlement) upon conversion. The value of the equity component is calculated by first measuring the fair value of the liability component, using the interest rate of a similar liability that does not have a conversion feature, as of the issuance date. The difference between the proceeds from the convertible debt issuance and the amount measured as the liability component is recorded as the equity component with a corresponding discount recorded on the debt. The Company recognizes the accretion of the resulting discount using the effective interest method as part of interest expense in its consolidated statements of operations.
Term Notes—On November 19, 2015, the Company borrowed $160,000 of term notes (“Term Notes”) under the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement in connection with the completion of the acquisition of Yodlee. In December 2015, the Company repaid $10,000 of the Term Notes. The Term Notes are payable in quarterly installments of $2,000 per installment, commencing in March 2016, with the final payment of all remaining Term Note principal due and payable on the scheduled maturity date.
Foreign Currency—The assets and liabilities of the foreign subsidiary, where the local currency is the functional currency, are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the consolidated balance sheet date. Income and expense amounts are translated at average rates during the period. The resulting foreign currency translation adjustment is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) in stockholders’ equity (deficit) in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The Company is also subject to gains and losses from foreign currency denominated transactions and the remeasurement of foreign currency denominated balance sheet accounts, both of which are included in other income (expense), net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Derivative Financial Instruments—The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to reduce its exposure to foreign currency exchange rate changes of the Indian Rupee on certain forecasted operating expenses and on certain existing assets and liabilities.
The contracts typically mature within 12 months, and they are not held for trading purposes. The Company may designate certain of its foreign currency forward contracts as hedging instruments subject to hedge accounting treatment. The Company records all of its derivative instruments at their gross fair value on the consolidated balance sheet, at each balance sheet date.
The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative instrument depends on whether the instrument has been designated and qualifies as a cash flow hedge for accounting purposes. For foreign currency forward contracts that are designated and qualify as hedging instruments, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative instrument is reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ equity/(deficit) and reclassified into operating expenses and cost of revenue in the same period during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. The ineffective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative instrument, if any, is recognized in other income (expense), net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. To receive hedge accounting treatment, cash flow hedges must be highly effective in offsetting changes to expected future cash flows on hedged transactions. The changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in other income (expense), net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Gains and losses related to derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment are recognized in other income (expense), net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
The Company classifies its cash flows from the derivative instruments as operating activities.
Other Income—On June 18, 2014, the Company reached an agreement with a vendor regarding the recovery of certain expenses the Company incurred in 2013. Under the terms of the agreement, the vendor agreed to pay the Company $1,825. The Company recognized a pre-tax gain of $1,825 resulting from the agreement, which is included in other income net in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014.
Non-controlling Interest—Effective February 1, 2014, the Company formed Envestnet Retirement Solutions, LLC (“ERS”) with various third parties. ERS offers advisory and technology enabled services to financial advisors and retirement plans. In exchange for a 64.5% ownership interest in ERS, the Company contributed certain assets and has agreed to fund a certain amount of the operating expenses of ERS. As described in Note 3, due to the issuance of units related to the acquisitions of Castle Rock Innovations, Inc. (“Castle Rock”) and Klein Decisions, Inc. (“Klein”) the Company’s ownership in ERS is 54.8% as of December 31, 2015.
The allocation of gains and losses to the members of ERS is based on a hypothetical liquidation book value method in accordance with the ERS operating agreement. Losses of $0 and $195 for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, are reflected as non-controlling interest in the consolidated statements of operations.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-02, “Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis,” which amends the consolidation requirements in ASC 810. These changes become effective for the Company’s fiscal year beginning January 1, 2016. The Company does believe the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-03, “Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs,” which requires that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented as a reduction to the carrying amount of that debt liability, not as an asset. The Company will adopt this guidance for the Company’s fiscal year beginning January 1, 2016.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, “Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes,” which requires entities with a classified balance sheet to present all deferred tax assets and liabilities as non-current. The updated guidance became effective under early adoption for the Company’s fiscal year beginning January 1, 2015, and resulted in a reclassification of $4,654 from current deferred tax assets to non-current deferred tax assets in the prior period.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef