Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The Company follows accounting standards established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) to ensure consistent reporting of financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. References to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) in these footnotes are to the FASB Accounting Standards CodificationTM, sometimes referred to as the codification or ASC.
Principles of Consolidation—The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Envestnet and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Management Estimates—Management of the Company has made certain estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities to prepare these consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP. Areas requiring the use of management estimates relate to estimating uncollectible receivables, revenue recognition, valuations and assumptions used for impairment testing of goodwill, intangible and other long-lived assets, fair value of restricted stock and stock options issued, fair value of contingent consideration, realization of deferred tax assets, uncertain tax positions, sales tax liabilities, fair value of the liability portion of the convertible debt and assumptions used to allocate purchase prices in business combinations. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Revenue Recognition—The Company recognizes revenue from services related to asset management and administration, licensing and professional services fees. The Company recognizes revenue when all of the following conditions are satisfied: (i) there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, (ii) the service or product has been provided to the customer and no uncertainties exist surrounding product acceptances (iii) the amount of fees to be paid by the customer is fixed or determinable; and (iv) the collection of fees is reasonably assured.
Subscription— Subscription revenue is primarily derived from customers accessing the SaaS technology platform and includes subscription, support, and usage-based fees. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the contracted term of each respective subscription agreement, commencing on the date the service is provisioned to the customer, provided the four revenue recognition criteria have been satisfied. Usage-based revenue is recognized as earned, provided the four revenue recognition criteria have been satisfied.
Licensing— The Company derives licensing fees from recurring contractual fixed fee contracts with larger financial institutions or enterprise clients. Licensing contracts allow the customer to provide a unique configuration of platform features and investment solutions for their advisors. The licensing fees vary based on the type of services provided and our revenues received under license agreements are recognized over the contractual term. The Company’s license agreements do not generally provide its customers the ability to take possession of the software or host the software on the customers’ own systems or through a hosting arrangement with an unrelated party.
The Company derives professional services fees from providing contractual customized service platform software development as well as implementation fees, which are recognized under a proportional performance model utilizing an output-based approach or are deferred and amortized over the estimated life of the customer relationship. The Company’s contracts generally have fixed prices, and generally specify or quantify deliverables.
Cash received by the Company in advance of the performance of services is deferred and recognized as revenue when earned. Certain portions of the Company’s revenues require management’s consideration of the nature of the client relationship in determining whether to recognize as revenue the gross amount billed or net amount retained after payments are made to providers for certain services related to the product or service offering.
The Company uses the following factors to determine whether to record revenue on a gross or net basis:
When customer fees include charges for third party service providers where the Company has a direct contract with such third party service providers, gross revenue recognized by the Company equals the fee paid by the customer. The cost of revenues recognized by the Company is the amount due to the third party service provider.
In instances where the Company does not have a direct contract with the third party service provider, the Company cannot exercise discretion in establishing fees paid by the customer and fees due to the third party service provider, and the Company does not have credit risk, the Company records the revenue on a net basis.
Multiple Element Arrangements—When the Company enters into arrangements with multiple deliverables, exclusive of arrangements with software deliverables, it applies the FASB’s guidance for revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables and evaluates each deliverable to determine whether it represents a separate unit of accounting based on the following criteria: (i) whether the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis, and (ii) if the contract includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item, delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in the control of the Company. Revenue is allocated to each unit of accounting or element based on relative selling prices. The Company determines relative selling prices by using either (a) vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) if it exists; or (b) third-party evidence (“TPE”) of selling price. When neither VSOE nor TPE of selling price exists for a deliverable, the Company uses its best estimate of the selling price for that deliverable.
After determining which deliverables represent a separate unit of accounting, each unit is then accounted for under the applicable revenue recognition guidance. In cases where elements cannot be treated as separate units of accounting, the elements are combined into a single unit of accounting for revenue recognition purposes. If one of the elements that are combined into a single unit of accounting is fees from professional services, including implementation related services or customized service platform software development, the professional service fees are recognized over the course of the expected customer relationship. We have estimated the life of the customer relationship by considering both the historical retention rate of our customers while not exceeding the number of years over which we can accurately forecast future revenues. We currently estimate this term to be five years.
For revenues that are subject to sales and use tax and that were billed to customers, the Company records the tax net within the corresponding revenue category in the consolidated statements of operations.
Deferred Revenue—Deferred revenue primarily consists of implementation and set up fees, professional services, and license fee payments received in advance from customers. For subscription agreements, the Company typically invoices its customers in monthly or annual fixed installments. Accordingly, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of these multi-year subscription agreements. Deferred revenue also includes certain deferred professional services fees, which are recognized in accordance with the Company’s revenue recognition policy.
Cost of Revenues—Cost of revenues primarily includes expenses related to third party investment management and clearing, custody and brokerage services. Generally, these expenses are calculated based upon a contractual percentage of the market value of assets held in customer accounts measured as of the end of each quarter and are recognized ratably throughout the quarter based on the number of days in the quarter.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts—The Company evaluates the need for an allowance for doubtful accounts for potentially uncollectible fees receivable. In establishing the amount of the allowance, if any, customer-specific information is considered related to delinquent accounts, including historical loss experience and current economic conditions. As of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts was $407, $242 and $221, respectively.
Cash and Cash Equivalents—The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are recorded at cost, which approximates fair value. The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents.
Investments—The Company has an investment that is recorded at cost and reviewed for impairment. Investments are included in “Other non-current assets” on the consolidated balance sheets and consist of non-marketable investments in privately held companies. The Company reviews these investments on a regular basis to evaluate the carrying amount and economic viability of these investments. This policy includes, but is not limited to, reviewing each of the investee’s cash position, financing needs, earnings/revenue outlook, operational performance, management/ownership changes and competition. The evaluation process is based on information that the Company requests from these investees. This information is not subject to the same disclosure regulations as U.S. publicly traded companies, and as such, the basis for these evaluations is subject to the timing and accuracy of the data received from these investees.
The Company has investments in which it uses the equity method of accounting to record its portion of investments in these privately held companies’ net income or loss on a one quarter lag from the actual results of operations. The Company uses the equity method of accounting because of its less than 50 percent ownership and lack of control. The Company’s interest in the earnings or losses of the privately held companies will be reflected in other expense, net on the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company’s investments are assessed for impairment when a review of the investee’s operations indicates that there is a decline in value of the investment and the decline is other than temporary. Such indicators include, but are not limited to, limited capital resources, limited prospects of receiving additional financing, and prospects for liquidity of the related securities. Impaired investments are written down to estimated fair value. The Company estimates fair value using a variety of valuation methodologies, including comparing the investee with publicly traded companies in similar lines of business, applying valuation multiples to estimated future operating results and estimated discounted future cash flows. There were $0, $734 and $0 in impairments to investments during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. See “Note 9 Other Non-Current Assets.”
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of furniture and equipment is computed using the straight-line method based on estimated useful lives of the depreciable assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated economic useful lives or the remaining lease term, whichever is shorter. Improvements are capitalized, while repairs and maintenance costs are charged to operations as incurred. Assets are reviewed for recoverability whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Internally Developed Software for Internal Use—Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct and incremental, are capitalized until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. The Company also capitalizes costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred. Internally developed software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life. Management evaluates the useful lives of these assets on an annual basis and tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets. There were no impairments of internally developed software for internal use during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets—Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets of businesses acquired. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment each year using a qualitative or quantitative process that is performed at least annually or whenever events or circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. The Company performs the annual impairment analysis on October 31 in order to provide management time to complete the analysis prior to year-end. The Company has concluded that it has two reporting units.
Prior to performing the quantitative evaluation, an assessment of qualitative factors may be performed to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying value. If it is determined that it is unlikely that the carrying value exceeds the fair value, the Company is not required to complete the quantitative goodwill impairment evaluation. If it is determined that the carrying value may exceed fair value when considering qualitative factors, a quantitative goodwill impairment evaluation is performed.
When performing the quantitative evaluation, if the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss equal to the difference will be recorded.
No goodwill impairment charges have been recorded for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances may affect the recoverability of the net assets. Such reviews include an analysis of current results and take into consideration the undiscounted value of projected operating cash flows. No intangible asset impairment charges have been recorded for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
Operating Leases—In certain circumstances, the Company enters into leases with free rent periods, rent escalations or lease incentives over the term of the lease. In such cases, the Company calculates the total payments over the term of the lease and records them ratably as rent expense over that term.
Income Taxes—The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and net operating loss carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company follows authoritative guidance related to how uncertain tax positions should be recognized, measured, disclosed and presented in the consolidated financial statements. This requires the evaluation of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the course of preparing the Company’s tax returns to determine whether the tax positions are “more-likely-than-not” of being sustained “when challenged” or “when examined” by the applicable tax authority. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from tax positions are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
Non-income Tax Liabilities—Certain of the Company’s revenues are subject to sales and use taxes in certain jurisdictions where it conducts business in the United States. During 2017 and 2016, the Company estimated that a sales and use tax liability of $8,522 and $10,108, respectively, was probable related to multiple taxing jurisdictions with respect to revenues in the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, and prior years. This amount is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. For the same periods, the Company also estimated a sales and use tax receivable of $2,704 and $3,879, respectively, related to estimated recoverability of amounts due from customers. This amount is included in prepaid expenses and other current assets on the consolidated balance sheets.
For the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recognized net sales and use tax expense of $345 and $6,229, including interest of approximately $244 and $914, respectively. The sales and use tax adjustment was recorded in general and administration on the consolidated statements of operations. Additional future information obtained from the applicable jurisdictions may affect the Company’s estimate of its sales and use tax liability.
Business Combinations—The Company accounts for business combinations under the acquisition method. The cost of an acquired company is assigned to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and the liabilities assumed on the basis of their fair values at the date of acquisition. The determination of fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management to make estimates and use valuation techniques when market values are not readily available. Any excess of purchase price over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired is allocated to goodwill. Transaction costs associated with business combinations are expensed as incurred. The Company determines the fair value of contingent acquisition consideration payable on the acquisition date using a discounted cash flow approach utilizing an appropriate discount rate. Each reporting period thereafter, the Company revalues these obligations and records increases or decreases in their fair value as adjustments to fair market value adjustment on contingent consideration in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. Changes in the fair value of the contingent acquisition consideration payable can result from adjustments to the estimated revenue forecasts included in the contingent payment calculations.
Stock-Based Compensation—Compensation cost relating to stock-based awards made to employees and directors is recognized in the consolidated financial statements using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model in the case of non-qualified stock option awards, and intrinsic value in the case of restricted stock awards. The Company measures the cost of such awards based on the estimated fair value of the award measured at the grant date and recognizes the expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period.
Determining the fair value of stock options requires the Company to make several estimates, including the volatility of its stock price, the expected life of the option, forfeiture rate, dividend yield and interest rates. The Company estimates the expected life of its options using historical internal forfeiture data. The Company estimates stock-price volatility using historical third-party quotes of Envestnet’s common stock. The Company utilizes a risk-free interest rate, which is based on the yield of U.S. zero coupon securities with a maturity equal to the expected life of the options. The Company has not and does not expect to pay dividends on its common shares.
The Company is required to estimate expected forfeitures of stock-based awards at the grant date and recognize compensation cost only for those awards expected to vest. The forfeiture assumption is ultimately adjusted to the actual forfeiture rate. Therefore, changes in the forfeiture assumptions may impact the total amount of expense ultimately recognized over the vesting period. Estimated forfeitures will be reassessed in subsequent periods and may change based on new facts and circumstances.
Convertible Notes—On December 15, 2014, the Company issued $172,500 of 1.75% convertible notes due December 2019 (the “Convertible Notes”). The Convertible Notes are accounted for in accordance with ASC 470-20. The Company has determined that the embedded conversion options in the Convertible Notes are not required to be separately accounted for as a derivative under GAAP. The Company separately accounts for the liability and equity components of Convertible Notes that can be settled in cash by allocating the proceeds from issuance between the liability component and the embedded conversion option, or equity component, in accordance with accounting for convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash (including partial cash settlement) upon conversion. The value of the equity component is calculated by first measuring the fair value of the liability component, using the interest rate of a similar liability that does not have a conversion feature, as of the issuance date. The difference between the proceeds from the convertible debt issuance and the amount measured as the liability component is recorded as the equity component with a corresponding discount recorded on the debt. The Company recognizes the accretion of the resulting discount using the effective interest method as part of interest expense in its consolidated statements of operations.
Non-controlling Interest—Effective February 1, 2014, the Company formed ERS with various third parties. ERS offers advisory and technology enabled services to financial advisors and retirement plans. In exchange for a 64.5% ownership interest in ERS, the Company contributed certain assets and has agreed to fund a certain amount of the operating expenses of ERS. As described in “Note 3 – Business Acquisitions,” primarily due to the issuance of units related to the contributions of FinaConnect, Inc. (“FinaConnect”) and Castle Rock Innovations, Inc. (“Castle Rock”) and the purchase of additional ERS units acquired from the former owners of Klein Decisions, Inc. (“Klein”), the Company’s ownership in ERS increased to 80.8% as of December 31, 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company purchased an additional 15 units, which increased the Company’s ownership percentage to 81.5% as of December 31, 2017.
The allocation of gains and losses to the members of ERS is based on a hypothetical liquidation book value method in accordance with the ERS operating agreement. There were no losses for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, reflected as non-controlling interest in the consolidated statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements—In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” which amends the existing accounting standards for revenue recognition. ASU 2014-09 is based on principles that govern the recognition of revenue at an amount an entity expects to be entitled when products are transferred to customers.
In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14 to amend ASU 2014-09 by approving a one-year deferral of the effective date as well as providing the option to early adopt the standard on the original effective date. Accordingly, the Company will adopt the standard in its first quarter of 2018.
The new revenue standard may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized as of the date of initial adoption. The standard also allows entities to apply certain practical expedients at their discretion. The Company will adopt the standard using the modified retrospective approach with a cumulative catch up adjustment and will provide additional disclosures comparing results to previous GAAP in our 2018 consolidated financial statements. We plan to apply the new revenue standard only to contracts not completed as of the date of initial application, referred to as open contracts. The Company has substantially completed the implementation of key systems changes and changes to internal controls over financial reporting to allow the Company to timely compile the information needed to account for transactions under this new guidance.
In adopting ASU 2014-09, the Company expects the following significant changes:
The Company currently estimates the adoption of ASU 2014-09 will decrease its 2018 beginning accumulated deficit balance by approximately $9,000, offset by an approximate $4,000 decrease in deferred revenues and an approximate $5,000 increase in other non-current assets.
Additionally, while we are still in the process of assessing the statement of operations classification impact, under ASU 2014-09, for a subset of third party manager agreements, the existing presentation of gross versus net revenue may change.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases”. This update amends the requirements for assets and liabilities recognized for all leases longer than twelve months. Lessees will be required to recognize a lease liability measured on a discounted basis, which is the lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease, and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. This standard will be effective for financial statements issued by public companies for the annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption of the standard is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, The FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting”. This update is intended to reduce the cost and complexity of accounting for share-based payments; however, some changes may also increase volatility in reported earnings. Under the new guidance, all excess tax benefits and deficiencies will be recorded as an income tax benefit or expense in the income statement and excess tax benefits will be recorded as an operating activity in the statements of cash flows. The new guidance also allows withholding up to the maximum individual statutory tax rate without classifying the awards as a liability. The cash paid to satisfy the statutory income tax withholding obligation will be classified as a financing activity in the statements of cash flows. Lastly, the update allows forfeitures to be estimated or recognized when they occur. The requirements for the excess tax effects related to share-based payments at settlement must be applied on a prospective basis, and the other requirements under this standard are to be applied on a retrospective basis. This standard will be effective for financial statements issued by public companies for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. These changes became effective for the Company’s fiscal year beginning January 1, 2017 and have been reflected in these consolidated financial statements. As a result of the retrospective adoption of ASU 2016-09, for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, net cash provided by operating activities increased by $4,455 and $17,607, respectively, with a corresponding offset to net cash used in financing activities. The Company did not elect an accounting policy change to record forfeitures as they occur and will continue to estimate forfeitures at each period.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) - Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments,” which clarifies eight specific cash flow issues in an effort to reduce diversity in practice in how certain transactions are classified within the statements of cash flows. This ASU is effective for the Company January 1, 2018 with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the ASU requires a retrospective application unless it is determined that it is impractical to do so for which it must be retrospectively applied at the earliest date practical. We will adopt the standard effective January 1, 2018. Upon adoption, the Company does not anticipate significant changes to the Company's existing accounting policies or presentation of the consolidated statements of cash flows.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350),” which removes step two from the goodwill impairment test. As a result, an entity should perform its annual goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting units’ fair value. This standard will be effective for financial statements issued by public companies for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has adopted this standard as of April 1, 2017, however it did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations: Clarifying the Definition of a Business (Topic 805), which provides a new framework for determining whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. This standard will be effective for public companies for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted effective for transactions not yet reported in financial statements issued or made available for issuance. We will adopt the standard effective January 1, 2018. Upon adoption, the Company will assess all future purchases within the context of this updated guidance. We do not anticipate significant changes to the Company's existing accounting policies or presentation of the consolidated statements of cash flows.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. This update clarifies which changes to the terms and conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting. Specifically, an entity would not apply modification account if the fair value, vesting conditions, and classification as an equity or liability instrument are the same before and after the modification. The ASU is effective for financial statements issued by public companies for the annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption of the standard is permitted. The standard will be applied prospectively to awards modified on or after the adoption date. We will adopt the standard effective January 1, 2018. Upon adoption, the Company will assess all future awards within the context of this updated guidance. We do not anticipate significant changes to the Company's existing accounting policies or presentation of the consolidated statements of cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef